The Course in Practical Design Thinking at Laurea was definitely a wow-moment. After two days of practicing design thinking we left inspired and empowered to take a new look of our life and work challenges. It f I would to choose the most powerful powerful tool I learned during this course it would be rapid prototyping.
What Fast Prototyping really is ?
Fast prototyping is a method often used by designers in Elaboration Phase (Tschimmel, K. 2012) or in Ideation Phase (Brown, T., 2008)
Tim Brown calls rapid prototyping ‚Building to Think’ (Brown, T., 2009) . According to Brown, prototypes are ‚quick and dirty’ way to generate understanding and access idea feasibility faster. Prototypes should consume only as much time and effort and investment as it is necessary to obtain the valuable feedback.
How to Prototype?
Both mentioned authors give examples of different technologies/solutions for rapid prototyping. From Lego, paper, to 3D digital visualisation and mobile app mockup software. Some of these technologies are especially useful when designing services. Prototyping allows to act out the end-to-end service in order to make sure that designers will be able unlock the additional insights by transitioning back and forth in between theoretical and physical models.
High-Fidelity and Low-Fidelity Prototyping
In the literature we can find an ongoing debate on high vs low fidelity prototyping. The authors argue how much the prototype should resemble the final product (Walker et al 2002).
- „Low-fidelity prototypes are often paper-based and do not allow user interactions. They range from a series of hand-drawn mock-ups to printouts. In theory, low-fidelity sketches are quicker to create. Low-fidelity prototypes are helpful in enabling early visualisation of alternative design solutions, which helps provoke innovation and improvement. An additional advantage to this approach is that when using rough sketches, users may feel more comfortable suggesting changes.
- High-fidelity prototypes are computer-based, and usually allow realistic (mouse-keyboard) user interactions. High-fidelity prototypes take you as close as possible to a true representation of the user interface. High-fidelity prototypes are assumed to be much more effective in collecting true human performance data (e.g., time to complete a task), and in demonstrating actual products to clients, management, and others.”
A good balance of low cost and representation is a essential if we want to fully benefit from the power of prototyping.
10 prototyping Principles
Prototyping might seem simple, however to make it useful it’s good to know the basic rules. Alex Osterwalder his book „Value Proposition Design” (2014) gives us 10 principles of prototyping.
- Make it visual and tangible – moving from conceptual to physical in at the very essence of prototyping
- Embrace beginners Mind – don’t let existing knowledge to limit you.
- Don’t fall in love with the first ideas, create alternatives instead
- Feel comfortable in liquid state
- Start with lo fidelity and refine – avoid refined prototypes as they are difficult to throw away
- Expose work early – seek criticism. Don’t take negative feedback personally, embrace it as valuable information to improve the model.
- Learn faster by failing early often and cheaply. Avoid fear of fear of failure as it is holding you from exploring new territories.
- Use creativity techniques to break out of how things are usually done in your company
- Create „Shrek Models” – extreme prototypes not for building, buy igniting discussion
- Track learnings, insights and progress. You might use them later in the process.
Prototyping in practice
The course allowed us to unveil the power of prototyping ourselves by puting theory into practice. While designing a new learning experience at Laurea that would transform a school into world-renowned institution we found the fast prototyping with Lego extremely useful. Our low fidelity model represented a new Laurea education experience. We tried not to hold back to current physical structural limitations of campus and be comfortable with a liquid state of gradually refining the model. Exposing the work to our fellow students was especially revealing. It was hard not to discuss the feedback but to take it and use for model improvement. Rapid prototyping once again proved itself to be a powerful way to transform ideas and deliver solutions.
Osterwalder, A. et all (2014) Value Proposition Design, Wiley Brown, T. and Kātz, B. (2009). Change by design. New York: Harper Business. Walker, M. Takayama, L., & Landay, J. A. (2002). Low- or high-fidelity, paper or computer? Choosing attributes when testing web prototypes. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society: HFES 2002, USA, 661-665. Tschimmel, K. (2012). Design Thinking as an effective Toolkit for Innovation. In: Proceedings of the XXIII ISPIM Conference: Action for Innovation: Innovating from Experience. Barcelona. Brown, T. 2008. “Design Thinking.” Harvard Business Review. June, pp. 84-92 https://www.usability.gov/how-to-and-tools/methods/prototyping.html
Good stuff – I thought that this was an excellent and on-point intro on prototyping!
Thanks for sharing this great intro about quick prototyping. Brown´s description about prototypes goes straight to the point – It is a “quick and dirty” way to generate understanding and access idea feasibility faster. Prototyping is really crucial part in the Design Thinking process in order to success.
I agree, one cannot emphasise enough learning with your hands. In my opinion it activates completely new brain cells when you put yourself out there and start using sketching and prototyping as tools. Equally important is to keep in mind what is the aim of the prototype, and for this the concepts of high-fidelity and low-fidelity prototyping you present give an excellent framework.